Tuberculosis disease (TB)

What is Tuberculosis?


It is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.This is not a hereditary disease as it is an airborne infection.Generally, tuberculosis damages the tissue of the lungs and can be infected with tuberculosis bacteria anywhere in the body.




Tuberculosis Symptoms and Signs

  • Cough that lasts more than two weeks
  • Night fever
  • Weight loss
  • Excessive sweating at night
  • The appetite for food
  • Bleeding with mucus
  • Difficulty breathing, chest pain
  • Tiredness

Tuberculosis Causes and How TB Is Spread

Tuberculosis spreads directly from person to person through the air, germ accumulate in the air when an infected patient coughs and speaks. When another person breathes, it enters the person's lungs. Tuberculosis germs that enter the lungs lead to alveoli in the lungs.

Tuberculosis bacteria develop in these cells.This is where infection begins.Then several tuberculosis bacteria spread throughout the body with blood.

Within two to eight weeks, the body's immune system produces macropages, which encircle the bacterium, causing the developing tuberculosis bacterium. These cells work to control the bacteria.

If the immune system is unable to control the germs of tuberculosis, it multiplies quickly and causes tuberculosis.

For those who are very low immune to the immune system, it quickly becomes infected.
Ex: HIV diabetes

To Prevent Tuberculosis, High-Risk People

1. Close association with patients. - Family, workplace, friends
2. Low income people (Nutritional deficiency is a cause)
3. Health workers
4. Young children and infants (because their immune system is growing)
5. Drug users
6. Living in a densely populated environment - slum dwellers, refugees
7. For those born abroad

TB can be present in the person for the rest of his life after being infected. However, tuberculosis does not occur just because the tuberculosis germ is ingested. About 10% of infected people become TB patients.

A person with tuberculosis has a 50% chance of dying within 5 years if not treated. Tuberculosis can be caused by people of all ages. You may find that the immunity of a person with tuberculosis affects their immune system.

How to identify a tuberculosis patient

1. Mantoux tuberculin skin test
It is made from a protein derived from inactivated tuberculosis bacteria, which is prepared as a vaccine. When a vaccine is administered to a tuberculosis patient, there is a reaction. By calculating it, the disease can be diagnosed.

0.1 ml of the respective solution is placed in a tuberculin syringe and injected with the left elbow to the side of the upper canal. Reaction testing within 48-72 hours.

2. Physical examination and physical examination
Although not definitive, it can be very valuable.

3. X-ray chest X-rays of the lungs.

4. Bacteriological Examination - Bacteriological Examination - Sputum Sample
- Bronchoscopy
- Culturing

The Disease Is Considered A Non-infectious Patient.

1. Patient receiving adequate treatment for 2 weeks or more
2. A patient who progresses symptomatically
3. Three consecutive samples taken for 5-24 hours with no negative results

Treatments For Tuberculosis

1. Isoniazid(INH)
2. Rifampin (RIF)
3. Pyrazinamide (PZA)
4. Ethambutol (EMB)


These drugs are antibiotics. Maintaining the right dose in a timely manner can help you achieve complete recovery.



Since tuberculosis is naturally more tolerant than other germs, it must be taken at least 6 months to eliminate the germs. Depending on the patient's condition, the doctor will determine the duration of treatment.



Failure to take the medication correctly can lead to a dangerous situation. It is called Multi Drug Restitant TB .

MDR TB (TB) is an incurable tuberculosis patient who does not take the prescribed medication, the right dose, until the time is up. That is, the antibiotics can no longer control the tuberculosis germ. What is worse is that the patient is spreading the disease to others.

Measures to Protect against Tuberculosis and Prevent the Spread of the Disease


  • Awareness on tuberculosis
  • Avoiding marginalization of patients
  • Refer to the right treatment
  • Good management of diseases such as diabetes
  • Living in an environment with good ventilation
  • Taking care of nutrition level
  • Concerns about symptoms and voluntarily participates in their investigations
  • Use a handkerchief when sneezing and sneezing
  • Avoid spitting all over the place
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